Glossary of Terms
One of several adaptations of the Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) standard for Local Area Networks (LANs). The 10Base-T standard (also called Twisted Pair Ethernet) uses a twisted-pair cable with maximum lengths of 100 meters.
- 301 Redirect
A permanent redirect of a page that has been moved or renamed.
- 404/http 404 “Not Found” Error
Usually means the page is missing, moved or deleted.
- Access Point
A networking hardware device, usually connected to a router, that allows several Wi-Fi compliant devices to connect to a wired network.
Refers to the accessibility of computer systems to all people, regardless of any disability or impairment, sometimes with the use of assistive technology.
Software created by Microsoft that adapts its COM and OLE technologies for content downloaded from a network, most often the World Wide Web.
An alternate name used for identification that is usually shorter than the original, used for naming a field or a file.
- Alt Tag
Within the HTML of the web page, the alt tag is used to identify images. Even if blank, the alt tag statement should be present in the code.
- Anonymous FTP
Part of the File Transfer Protocol on the internet that lets anyone log on to an FTP server without a password and using any username.
Software tools used to prevent unwanted computer solicitations and junk mail.
Software used to identify and protect against malicious code that may be harmful to a computer.
A very small application, a utility program performing one or few simple functions. Many applets can be downloaded from various sites on the internet, such as java.
Software programs that run on computers that have specific functions, such as web browsers, utilities, e-mail programs, etc.
- ASCII File
Also referred to as a ‘plain text file’, these files are usually created using a simple text editor, such as Notepad or emacs.
- AT Command Set
A standard developed by Hayes to control modems. A string holds multiple AT (attention) commands placed together, which prepares the modem to dial out.
Most commonly sent through e-mail or a form of Instant Messager, they can be word docs, pictures, excel sheets, sound recordings, movies, etc. and usually require another application to open them.
A process in which a system verifies the identity of a user who is trying to access it, a common form of authentication is requesting a password.
A part of a computer network that interconnects various pieces of network, providing a path for information to cross with different LANs and subnetworks
The range of frequencies within a given band, in particular those used for transmitting signal. The larger the bandwidth, the more data can be transmitted.
- Binary File
A file that is computer-readable but not human-readable. All executable programs are stored in binary files, which consist of ones and zeros.
Short for binary-to-hexadecimal, a binary-to-text encoding system that was popularly used in macs to send binary files through email. Similar to Uuencode.
Short for binary digit, a bit is the smallest unit of data in a computer, one bit consisting of a singly binary value, either one or zero.
- Black Hat SEO
SEO practices that are unsound or illegal and, if discovered, will result in a website being blacklisted by the search engines.
Short for ‘weblog’, it is used as an on-line journal or commentary.
A standard for the short-range wireless interconnection of cellular phones, computers and other electronic devices.
A commonly used raster graphic file format for saving image files originally introduced on windows, but is now used on several Mac and PC programs.
Bookmarking a website is used to assist the user in finding the website later.it also can be used to increase inbound links to a website, thus giving a business a web presence outside of their own website.
- Boolean Logic
A form of algebra in which all values are reduced to either true/false, named after the nineteenth century mathematician George Boole.
Most commonly referring to email messages, this occurs when a message is sent to an email address that doesn’t exist, and the mail server bounces a message back to the original sender saying the address is not correct.
A device that connects two or more LANs together. This causes an increase in speed of transferring data, however a bridge is not as versatile as a router.
A high-speed data transmission in which a single cable carries a large amount of date a once. Popular types of broadband connections are DSL and Cable modems.
An application used to access and view the World Wide Web. Examples include Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, and Microsoft Edge.
A buffer contains data that is stored for a short amount of time in the RAM, with the purpose of holding the data right before it is used.
- Business Continuity
Business continuity is the activity performed by an organization to ensure that critical business systems will continue to function and be available to users in the event of a catastrophic failure at the primary business location. Business Continuity refers to steps taken in advance to ensure operation can continue after a disaster occurs.
- Business Continuity Plan
Business Continuity Plan or “BCP” is a set of documents, instructions, and procedures which enable a business to respond to accidents, disasters, emergencies, and/or threats without any stoppage or hindrance in its key operations. It is also called a disaster recovery plan.
A simple way to tell people to bring their own device (such as a computer, tablet, smartphone, etc).
A group of adjacent binary digits that a computer processes as a unit to form a character such as the letter “B”. A byte consists of eight bits.
- Cable Modem
A cable modem is a peripheral device used to connect to the Internet. It operates over a coax line and provides high-speed Internet access. Since cable modems offer an always-on connection and fast data transfer rates, they are considered broadband devices.
A cache stores recently used information so that it can be quickly accessed at a later time. Computers use several caches to run quickly and improve performance, common types of caches are browser cache, memory cache, and processor cache.
A program used to verify that a human, rather than a computer, is entering data. Captchas often ask for you to enter a short series of letters and numbers, usually with the picture distorted in some way. If the text is too difficult to read, the user can usually request a new captcha.
Generally applies to a data input field; meaning that lowercase and uppercase letters are not equivalent, for example, entering “APP” would be read differently than “app”.
Computer based training; any course of instruction whose primary means of delivery is a computer. Often delivered via a software product installed on a computer.
- CD-R Drive
Short for Compact Disk-Recordable drive, it is a type of disk drive that can create CD-ROMs and audio CDs.
Stands for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory. A CD that can be read in a computer with an optical drive. These discs cannot be altered or erased.
- CD-RW, CD-R Disk
A digital optical disc storage format that can be written, read, and erased arbitrarily many times.
Common Gateway Interface is a standard way for web servers to interface with executable programs installed on a server that generates web pages dynamically.
A real-time communication via keyboard between two or more users on a Local Area Network or even over the internet.
- Client Application
An application that connects to and requests information from a server application. Examples: Microsoft Outlook is a client application that connects to the Microsoft Exchange email server application. A client program also may be referred to as “client software” in a “client-server” configuration.
- Client Server Technology
A network architecture in which each computer or process on the network is either a client or a server.
A common shorthand for systems that are hosted in a data center and the service is provided through the internet.
- Cloud Computing
The practice of using a network of remote servers hosted on the internet to store, manage and process data, rather than a personal computer or local server.
‘Content Management System’, a user friendly application used to build or edit a website’s content.
Data compression method in which the logical size of a file is reduced to save disk space for easier and faster transmission over a network or the internet.
A term that describes the link between a plug or connector into a port or jack, such as a keyboard and mouse being plugged into a computer. Connections are also often times made over the internet or a network between two devices.
- Conversion Rate
A measurement in internet marketing referring to the number or percentage of visitors who perform a desired action while on a website resulting in a business making a sale or gaining information.
Small files which are stored on a user’s computer designed to hold a small amount of information specific to a particular client and website. It can be accessed by the web server or the client computer.
Computer programs or other material designed for use in an educational environment or training courses.
Short for Central Processing Unit, this is the brain of the computer, containing circuitry necessary to interpret and execute program instructions and run processes.
Cloud Service Provider, this is a company that offers some component of cloud computing – typically Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Software as a Service (SaaS), or Platform as a Service (PaaS).
Cascading Style Sheet; describes how HTML elements are to be displayed on a screen, paper, or any other media.
A movable indicator on a computer screen identifying the point that will be affected by input from the user. For example, in a text document you would select where you next wanted to type.
A term used to describe the notional environment in which communication over computer networks occurs.
Desktop-as-a-service is a form of virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI) in which the VDI is outsourced and handled by a third party. Also commonly referred to as hosted desktop service, and is frequently delivered as a cloud service.
A computer program that runs as a background process, rather than being under the direct control of an interactive user. Daemon processes typically end with the letter d.
- Data Center
A large group of networked computer servers typically used by organizations for the remote storage, processing, or distribution of large amounts of data.
A collection of information that is organized so that it can easily be accessed, managed, and updated.
To change the information in a computer document back into a form that can be easily read or used, after the data file had been previously compressed.
The moving parts of a file into contiguous blocks or sectors on a hard drive to increase the speed of access and retrieval.
The primary display screen of a graphical user interface, on which various icons representing files or applications are arranged and can be managed to the user’s preferences.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network protocol that enables a server to automatically assign an IP address to a computer from a defined range of numbers configured for a given network.
- Dial-Up Adapter
Hardware or software that dials up a telephone number. It often refers to the software in a PC that commands the modem to dial an ISP’s telephone number for Internet access.
- Dial-Up Connection
Dial-up Internet access is a form of Internet access that uses the facilities of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) to establish a connection to an Internet service provider (ISP) by dialing a telephone number on a conventional telephone line.
- Dialog Box
A movable window that is displayed on screen in response to the user selecting a menu option.
- Digital Asset
Anything that exists in a binary format and comes with the right to use. Files that do not possess the aforementioned right are not considered assets.
Digitization is the process of converting information into a digital format. In this format, information is organized into discrete units of data called bits that can be separately addressed (usually in multiple-bit groups called bytes).
Dual In-line Memory Module; a double SIMM (single in-line memory module). Like a SIMM, it’s a module containing one or several random access memory (RAM) chips on a small circuit board with pins that connect it to the computer motherboard.
A directory is a location for storing files on your computer. Directories are found in a hierarchical file system, such as DOS, OS/2, Unix, etc. When referring to a directory, a user commonly indicates the name of the directory.
- Disaster Recovery
Disaster recovery is the area of security planning that deals with protecting an organization from the effects of significant negative events. Such events could be a cyberattack or equipment failures.
- Disaster Recovery Planning
A disaster recovery plan consists of the precautions taken so that the effects of a disaster will be minimized and the organization will be able to either maintain or quickly resume mission-critical functions.
- Discussion Group
A voluntary gathering of individuals to exchange ideas, information, suggestions, problems, etc. of mutual interest.
- Distance Learning
Distance learning, sometimes called e-learning, is a formalized teaching and learning system specifically designed to be carried out remotely by using electronic communication.
Dithering is used in computer graphics to create additional colors and shades from an existing palette by interspersing pixels of different colors.
An abbreviation for Domain Name System, a system for naming computers and network services that is organized into a hierarchy of domains. DNS naming is used in TCP/IP networks, such as the Internet, to locate computers and services through user-friendly names.
Within the Internet, domains are defined by the IP address. All devices sharing a common part of the IP address are said to be in the same domain.
- Domain Registration
The process of acquiring a website address (example www.websiteaddress.com). Registration fees vary and agreed upon for a set period of time, usually for a minimum of one year.
Downloading is the transmission of a file from one computer system to another, usually smaller computer system. From the Internet user’s point-of-view, to download a file is to request it from another computer and to receive it.
In printing, DPI (dots per inch) refers to the output resolution of a printer or imagesetter, and PPI (pixels per inch) refers to the input resolution of a photograph or image.
Disaster Recovery as a Service (DRaaS) is a cloud computing and backup service model that uses cloud resources to protect applications and data from disruption caused by disaster.
- Drag and Drop
A pointing device gesture in which the user selects a virtual object by “grabbing” it and dragging it to a different location or onto another virtual object, and “dropping” it in its new destination.
Stands for digital subscriber line which is defined as the way a computer connects to the Internet at high speeds using telephone lines.
Short for digital versatile disc or digital video disc, a type of optical disk technology similar to the CD-ROM. A DVD holds a minimum of 4.7GBof data, enough for a full-length movie
- DVD-RW, DVD-R Disk
A DVD-RW disk is a disk that allows you to read and rewrite its contents multiple times, unlike a DVD-R disk which can only be read.
- Dynamic Web Page
Web page content that is changeable through a CMS, or is programmed to change every time the page is loaded.
Short for electronic mail, email (or e-mail) is defined as the transmission of messages over communications networks. Typically, the messages are notes entered from the keyboard or electronic files stored on disk.
- E-Mail Archiving
Email archiving is a systematic approach to saving and protecting the data contained in e-mail messages so it can be accessed quickly at a later date.
Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) is a point-to-point (P2P) wireless and local area network (LAN) data communication framework providing a variety of authentication mechanisms.
Electronic commerce on a website allows for the purchase and transferring of goods and/or services between vendors and buyers.
eLearning refers to using electronic applications and processes to learn. eLearning applications and processes include Web-based learning, computer-based learning, virtual classrooms and digital collaboration.
Emoticons are used in a digital message or text to convey the writer’s emotions or clarify intent.
An emulator is hardware or software that enables one computer system (called the host) to behave like another computer system. An emulator typically enables the host system to run software or use peripheral devices designed for the guest system.
Encryption is the most effective way to achieve data security. To read an encrypted file, you must have access to a secret key or password that enables you to decrypt it. Unencrypted data is called plain text; encrypted data is referred to as cipher text.
A PostScript file format used to transfer a graphic image between applications and platforms.
The most widely used local area network (LAN) technology. Defined as the 802.3 standard by the IEEE, the Ethernet access method is used to connect computers in a company or home network as well as to connect a single computer to a modem for Internet access.
- Ethernet Card
One kind of network adapter. These adapters support the Ethernet standard for high-speed network connections via cables. Ethernet cards are sometimes known as network interface cards (NICs).
- Expansion Card
An expansion card is an electronic card/board that is used to add extra functionality to a computer. It is inserted into an expansion slot on the motherboard of a computer.
In computer operating systems, a file name extension is an optional addition to the file name in a suffix of the form “xxx” where “xxx” represents a limited number of alphanumeric characters depending on the operating system.
- Female Connector
A female connector is a connector attached to a wire, cable, or piece of hardware, having one or more recessed holes with electrical terminals inside, and constructed in such a way that a plug with exposed conductors (male connector) can be inserted snugly into it to ensure a reliable physical and electrical connection.
A field is an area in a fixed or known location in a unit of data such as a record, message header, or computer instruction that has a purpose and usually a fixed size.
A file is a self-contained piece of information available to the operating system and any number of individual programs.
In computer programming, a filter is a program or section of code that is designed to examine each input or output request for certain qualifying criteria and then process or forward it accordingly.
Finger is a program that tells you the name associated with an e-mail address. It may also tell you whether they are currently logged in at their system or their most recent logon session and possibly other information, depending on the data that is maintained about users on that computer.
A firewall is a system designed to prevent unauthorized access to a private network. You can set up a firewall in either hardware or software form, or by combining the two.
FireWire is Apple Computer’s version of a standard, IEEE 1394, High Performance Serial Bus, for connecting devices to your personal computer. FireWire provides a single plug-and-socket connection on which up to 63 devices can be attached with data transfer speeds up to 400 Mbps.
- Flash Drive
A portable flash memory card that plugs into USB ports in computers and functions as a small hard drive. USB flash drives are praised for their ease of use, as they are small enough to fit in a pocket and can plug into anything with a USB port.
- Flash Memory
A type of memory that retains data in the absence of a power supply; used in memory sticks and USB drives.
An organizational element of a computer operating system that sorts data and files, which will then be sorted into a directory.
A font is a specific typeface of a certain size and style used in most word processing programs.
Public, on-line sites where visitors can have discussions or post ideas, thoughts, and comments.
In some operating system’s file systems, a data file over a certain size is stored in several fragments rather than in a single contiguous sequence of bits in one place on the storage medium.
A feature of some web browsers where the pages are broken up into various areas, which allow the multiple web pages to all show up on the same page.
Software that is free to use, unlike commercial software which must be bought. It does not require any payment or licensing fee, and will never ask for payment throughout use.
The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used to transfer computer files between a client and server on a computer network.
Stands for “Graphics Interchange Format.” GIF is an image file format commonly used for images on the web and sprites in software programs. GIFs use lossless compression that does not degrade the quality of the image.
- Gigabyte (Gig or GB)
A gigabyte (GB) is a measure of computer data storage capacity that is roughly equivalent to 1 billion bytes. A gigabyte is two to the 30th power or 1,073,741,824 in decimal notation, and equal to 1000 megabytes.
- Google PageRank
A patented algorithm that determines the numeric popularity of a website based on search query criteria, along with the content of a website and its relevant links. The term ‘Page Rank’ actually has dual meaning as it was named after one of its developers, Larry Page, in determining the overall value of a web page.
An electronic system that uses satellites to determine the position of a vehicle, person, etc.
(Or grayware) refers to an unwanted software program (small or large) that can cause damage to a computer system. Most adware, malware, and spyware programs can be classified as grayware.
Graphical User Interface, a program interface that takes advantage of the computer’s graphics capabilities to make the program easier to use, such as Microsoft Windows.
The exchange of information between two modems which results in an agreement about which protocol to use that precedes each telephone connection.
The physical aspect of computers, telecommunications, and other devices. Ex. Keyboard, hard drive, mouse.
- Hark Disk
A device that stores and provides relatively quick access to large amounts of data on an electromagnetically charged surface or set of surfaces. 128 Gigabyte, 256 Gigabyte, and 512 Gigabyte are common capacities of hard drives sold in computers today.
In e-mail, the header is the part of a message that describes the originator, the addressee and other recipients, message priority level, and so forth.
- Help Desk
A place that a user of information technology can call to get help with a problem.
- Helper Application
A helper application is any application that handles files received by a Web browser. A browser invokes a helper application through a prebuilt component in the browser’s stored list of applications, and is not viewable by the browser.
- Home Page
The part of a web site that is seen first, and usually contains links to other parts of the site.
Usually refers to a computer that is connected to a TCP/IP network, including the Internet. Each host on such a network has a unique IP address.
- Hosting/Website Hosting
Internet hosting is a service provided to individuals and organizations to allow accessibility to a website through the World Wide Web (www).
(Hypertext Markup Language) is the set of markup symbols or codes inserted in a file intended for display on a World Wide Web browser
A hypervisor, also called a virtual machine manager, is a program that allows multiple operating systems to share a single hardware host. Each operating system appears to have the host’s processor, memory, and other resources all to itself; however, the hypervisor is actually controlling the host processor and resources, allocating what is needed to each operating system in turn and making sure that the guest operating systems (called virtual machines) cannot disrupt each other.
Infrastructure as a Service is a form of cloud computing that provides virtualized computing resources over the internet. One of the three main cloud computing services next to Software as a Service (SaaS) and Platform as a Service (PaaS).
In a computer’s graphical user interface (GUI), an icon is an image (often selectable) that represents an application, a capability, or some other concept or specific entity with meaning for the user.
Stands for “Internet Connection Sharing.” ICS allows multiple computers to connect to the Internet using the same Internet connection and IP address.
- IEEE 1394 Port
An interface standard for a serial bus for high-speed communications and isochronous real-time data transfer.
- Image Map
In HTML and XHTML, an image map is a list of coordinates relating to a specific image, created in order to hyperlink areas of the image to different destinations.
Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is an Internet standard protocol used by e-mail clients to retrieve e-mail messages from a mail server over a TCP/IP connection.
- Inbound Links
Inbound links are hyperlinks set up on an external website that lead others to a specific website. From an SEO perspective, it is of benefit to have many relevant inbound links as possible.
- Inbound Marketing
The act of bringing customers to the business by focusing on attracting them to a website.
- Indexed File
A computer file with an index that allows easy random access to any record given its file key.
A worldwide system of computer networks – a network of networks in which users at any one computer can, if they have permission, get information from any other computer.
- Internet Explorer
Is a series of graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included as part of the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, starting in 1995.
- Internet Marketing
The marketing or selling of products and services on the internet.
- Internet Radio
An audio service transmitted via the Internet. Broadcasting on the Internet is usually referred to as webcasting since it is not transmitted broadly through wireless means.
- IP Address
An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device participating in a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication.
Internet Relay Chat Protocol (IRCP) is an application layer protocol that facilitates communication in the form of text. The chat process works on a client/server networking model.
An interrupt request (or IRQ) is a hardware signal sent to the processor that temporarily stops a running program and allows a special program, an interrupt handler, to run instead.
Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides services for accessing and using the Internet. Internet service providers may be organized in various forms, such as commercial, community-owned, non-profit, or otherwise privately owned.
Independent procedures that are used together for checking that a product, service, or system meets requirements and specifications and that it fulfills its intended purpose.
A general-purpose computer programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
A high-level, dynamic, untyped, and interpreted programming language. It has been standardized in the ECMAScript language specification.
Is a commonly used method of lossy compression for digital images, particularly for those images produced by digital photography.
Alignment of text along a margin. To produce good-looking justification, the word processor and printer must be capable of microspacing; that is, they must be able to separate letters by less than a full space.
A unit of computer memory or data equal to 1,024 (210) bits.
kilobit per second (symbol kbit/s or kb/s, often abbreviated “kbps”) is a unit of data transfer rate equal to 1,000 bits per second, 125 bytes per second.
A computer network authentication protocol that works on the basis of ‘tickets’ to allow nodes communicating over a non-secure network to prove their identity to one another in a secure manner.
The process of adjusting the spacing between characters in a proportional font, usually to achieve a visually pleasing result.
A word in a text document that is used in an index to best describe the contents of the document.
- Kilobyte (K, KB, kB)
Has traditionally been used to denote 1024 (210) bytes, which arises from binary exponentiation common to digital circuitry. In this context, the symbols K and KB are often used when 1024 bytes are meant.
- Knowledge Base
A technology used to store complex structured and unstructured information used by a computer system.
A computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a residence, school, laboratory, university campus or office building and has its network equipment and interconnects locally managed.
- Laser Printer
An electrostatic digital printing process. It produces high-quality text and graphics (and moderate-quality photographs) by repeatedly passing a laser beam back and forth over a negatively charged cylinder called a “drum” to define a differentially charged image.
Refers to the distance between the baselines of successive lines of type. The term originated in the days of hand-typesetting, when thin strips of lead were inserted into the forms to increase the vertical distance between lines of type.
- Learning Management System (LMS)
A software application for the administration, documentation, tracking, reporting and delivery of electronic educational technology (also called e-learning) courses or training programs.
- Learning Object
A collection of content items, practice items, and assessment items that are combined based on a single learning objective.
Essentially the same thing as a hyperlink.
A Unix-like and mostly POSIX-compliant computer operating system (OS) assembled under the model of free and open-source software development and distribution.
- LISTSERV, Listserver
Has been used to refer to electronic mailing list software applications in general, but is more properly applied to a few early instances of such software, which allows a sender to send one email to the list, and then transparently sends it on to the addresses of the subscribers to the list.
- Log In, Log On
The process by which an individual gains access to a computer system by identifying and authenticating themselves.
- Lossy Compression
A type of Data Compression is the class of data encoding methods that uses inexact approximations and partial data discarding to represent the content. These techniques are used to reduce data size for storage, handling, and transmitting content.
The MAC sublayer provides addressing and channel access control mechanisms that make it possible for several terminals or network nodes to communicate within a multiple access network that incorporates a shared medium, e.g. an Ethernet network.
A series of personal computers (PCs) designed, developed, and marketed by Apple Inc. Steve Jobs introduced the original Macintosh computer on January 24, 1984.
- Mail Server
Consists of a storage area where e-mail is stored for local users, a set of user definable rules which determine how the mail server should react to the destination of a specific message, a database of user accounts that the mail server recognizes and will deal with locally, and communications modules which are the components that actually handle the transfer.
- Mailing List
A collection of names and addresses used by an individual or an organization to send material to multiple recipients.
- Main Memory
The memory that is directly accessible to the CPU. The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them as required. Also referred to as RAM (Random Access Memory).
Computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications, bulk data processing such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning, and transaction processing.
- Male Connector
A connector attached to a wire, cable, or piece of hardware, having one or more exposed, unshielded electrical terminals, and constructed in such a way that it can be inserted snugly into a receptacle (female connector) to ensure a reliable physical and electrical connection.
Short for malicious software, malware is any software used to disrupt computer operations, gather sensitive information, gain access to private computer systems, or display unwanted advertising.
Messaging Application Programming Interface is a messaging architecture and a Component Object Model based API for Microsoft Windows. MAPI allows client programs to become (e-mail) messaging-enabled, -aware, or -based by calling MAPI subsystem routines that interface with certain messaging servers.
Mobile Device Management is an industry term for the administration of mobile devices, such as smartphones, tablet computers, laptops and desktop computers. MDM is usually implemented with the use of a third party product that has management features for particular vendors of mobile devices.
- Megabyte (Meg or MB)
1,048,576 bytes, (1024×1024 bytes or 2^20 power). Larger than a kilobyte, smaller than a gigabyte.
A menu is a set of options presented to the user of a computer application to help the user find information or execute a program function.
HTML code which displays specific details about a web page, including the title, description and keywords.
- MHz or mHz
1,000,000 Hertz, equal to one million cycles per second.
- Microsoft Exchange
Microsoft Exchange Server is a calendaring and mail server developed by Microsoft that runs exclusively on the Microsoft Windows Server product line. Exchange Server was initially Microsoft’s internal mail server. The first version of Exchange Server to be published outside Microsoft was Exchange Server 4.
- Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Windows (or simply Windows) is a metafamily of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions is an internet standard that extends the format of email to support text in character sets and header information that aren’t ASCII, non-text attachments such as audio, video, and images, and message bodies with multiple parts.
A modulator-demodulator is a network hardware device that modulates one or more carrier wave signals to encode digital information for transmission and demodulates signals to decode the transmitted information.
Moderators (short singular form: “mod”) are users or employees of the forum who are granted access to the posts and threads of all members for the purpose of moderating discussion and also keeping the forum clean.
An electronic visual display for computers. A monitor usually comprises the display device, circuitry, casing, and power supply.
A computer mouse is a pointing device (hand control) that detects two-dimensional motion relative to a surface. This motion is typically translated into the motion of a pointer on a display, which allows a smooth control of the graphical user interface.
The Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) is a working group of authorities that was formed by ISO and IEC to set standards for audio and video compression and transmission.
A service that provides users with a system for the backup, storage, and recovery of computer files.
Managed services is the practice of outsourcing on a proactive basis management responsibilities and functions and a strategic method for improving operations and cutting expenses. An MSP is a Managed Service Provider.
Content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, audio, images, animation, video and interactive content.
Concept of performing multiple tasks (also known as processes) over a certain period of time by executing them concurrently. New tasks start and interrupt already started ones before they have reached completion, instead of executing the tasks sequentially so each started task needs to reach its end before a new one is started.
Network as a service describes services for network transport connectivity. NaaS involves the optimization of resource allocations by considering network and computing resources as a unified whole.
A computer hardware or software server that implements a network service for providing responses to queries against a directory service.
Network Address Translation is a method of remapping one IP address space into another by modifying network address information in Internet Protocol datagram packet headers while they are in transit across a traffic routing device
A telecommunications network which allows computers to exchange data. In computer networks, networked computing devices exchange data with each other using a data link. The connections between nodes are established using either cable media or wireless media.
- Network Adapter
A computer hardware component that connects a computer to a computer network.
- Network Hub
A network hardware device for connecting multiple Ethernet devices together and making them act as a single network segment. It has multiple input/output (I/O) ports, in which a signal introduced at the input of any port appears at the output of every port except the original incoming.
The Network News Transfer Protocol is an application protocol used for transporting Usenet news articles (netnews) between news servers and for reading and posting articles by end user client applications.
Optical Character Recognition is the mechanical or electronic conversion of images of typed, handwritten or printed text into machine-encoded text, whether from a scanned document, a photo of a document, a scene-photo or from subtitle text superimposed on an image.
- Off Page SEO
Actions taken to promote a website outside the design of the website itself. Increasing inbound links, registering the website with directories relevant to the industry of the site, and increasing the number of pages within the search engine indexes all promote SEO in the end.
“Online” indicates a state of connectivity, while “offline” indicates a disconnected state.
A format for scalable computer fonts. It was built on its predecessor TrueType, retaining TrueType’s basic structure and adding many intricate data structures for prescribing typographic behavior.
- Organic SEO
The natural method of optimizing a website and improving link popularity to gain higher web rankings.
- Outbound Marketing
Traditional marketing efforts include newspapers advertising, direct mail, etc. in an attempt to gain customers.
Platform as a Service is a category of cloud computing services that provides a platform allowing customers to develop, run, and manage applications without the complexity of building and maintaining the infrastructure typically associated with developing and launching an app.
A formatted unit of data carried by a packet-switched network. Computer communications links that do not support packets, such as traditional point-to-point telecommunications links, simply transmit data as a bit stream.
A document that is suitable for the World Wide Web and web browsers. A web browser displays a web page on a monitor or mobile device.
A given, finite set of colors for the management of digital images.
- Parallel Port
A type of interface found on computers (personal and otherwise) for connecting peripherals. In computing, a parallel port is a parallel communication physical interface.
A word or string of characters used for user authentication to prove identity or access approval to gain access to a resource, which is to be kept secret from those not allowed access.
- Pay Per Click
Search engine advertising where a website owner purchases visitors or ‘clicks’ to their site. The fee varies and is charged based on the number of clicks.
A personal computer is a general-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and original sale price make it useful for individuals.
Personal Digital Assistant, also known as a handheld PC, or personal data assistant, is a mobile device that functions as a personal information manager.
Portable Document Format is a file format used to present documents in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
Peer-to-peer computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or work-loads between peers. Peers are equally privileged, equipotent participants in the application.
A family of high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages. The languages in this family include Perl 5 and Perl 6.
Pretty Good Privacy is a data encryption and decryption computer program that provides cryptographic privacy and authentication for data communication.
An Internet facility that lets you search for someone’s e-mail address if their e-mail provider has a Ph server program.
Attempting to acquire sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details (and sometimes, indirectly, money), often for malicious reasons, by masquerading as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication.
Ping is a computer network administration software utility used to test the reachability of a host on an Internet Protocol (IP) network. It measures the round-trip time for messages sent from the originating host to a destination computer that are echoed back to the source.
A physical point in a raster image, or the smallest addressable element in an all points addressable display device; so it is the smallest controllable element of a picture represented on the screen.
- Plug and Play
A plug and play device, or computer bus, is a device with a specification that facilitates the discovery of a hardware component in a system without the need for physical device configuration or user intervention in resolving resource conflicts.
A software component that adds a specific feature to an existing computer program.
An application-layer Internet standard protocol used by local e-mail clients to retrieve e-mail from a remote server over a TCP/IP connection.
- Pop-Up Blocker
A program that prevents pop-ups from displaying in a user’s Web browser. Pop-up blockers work in a number of ways: some close the window before it appears, some disable the command that calls the pop-up, and some alter the window’s source HTML.
Power-On Self-Test is a process performed by firmware or software routines immediately after a computer or other digital electronic device is powered on.
A computer language for creating vector graphics. It is a dynamically typed, concatenative programming language and was created at Adobe Systems by John Warnock, Charles Geschke, Doug Brotz, Ed Taft and Bill Paxton from 1982 to 1984.
- PostScript Fonts
Font files encoded in outline font specifications developed by Adobe Systems for professional digital typesetting. This system uses PostScript file format to encode font information.
Point-to-Point Protocol is a data link (layer 2) protocol used to establish a direct connection between two nodes. It can provide connection authentication, transmission encryption (using ECP, RFC 1968), and compression.
- Private Cloud
Cloud infrastructure operated solely for a single organization, whether managed internally or by a third-party, and hosted either internally or externally.
A collection of instructions that performs a specific task when executed by a computer.
A specific set of communication rules set forth when two computers communicate between each other.
A server (a computer system or an application) that acts as an intermediary for requests from clients seeking resources from other servers.
- Public Domain Software
Programs that are uncopyrighted because their authors intended to share them with everyone else are in the public domain.
To request data from another program or computer. The opposite of pull is push, where data is sent without a request being made.
Quality of service is the overall performance of a telephony or computer network, particularly the performance seen by the users of the network.
An extensible multimedia framework developed by Apple Inc., capable of handling various formats of digital video, picture, sound, panoramic images, and interactivity.
A form of computer data storage. A random-access memory device allows data items to be accessed (read or written) in almost the same amount of time irrespective of the physical location of data inside the memory.
A collection of data items arranged for processing by a program. Multiple records are contained in a file or data set.
A hierarchical database that stores low-level settings for the Microsoft Windows operating system and for applications that opt to use the Registry. The kernel, device drivers, services, Security Accounts Manager (SAM), and user interface can all use the Registry.
- Remote Backup
A service that provides users with a system for the backup, storage, and recovery of computer files.
- Remote Desktop
Refers to a software or operating system feature that allows a personal computer’s desktop environment to be run remotely on one system (usually a PC, but the concept applies equally to a server), while being displayed on a separate client device.
- Remote Login
Refers to any method of controlling a computer from a remote location.
An additive color model in which red, green, and blue light are added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colors.
- Rich Text Format
Rich Text Format is a proprietary document file format with published specification developed by Microsoft Corporation from 1987 until 2008 for cross-platform document interchange with Microsoft products.
- RJ-45 Connector
A modular connector commonly used to terminate twisted pair and multi-conductor flat cable. These connectors are commonly used for Ethernet over twisted pair, registered jacks and other telephone applications
Read-only memory is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices. Data stored in ROM can only be modified slowly, with difficulty, or not at all, so it is mainly used to store firmware (software that is closely tied to specific hardware and unlikely to need frequent updates) or application software in plug-in cartridges.
A networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks. Routers perform the “traffic directing” functions on the Internet.
- RSS Feed
RSS is short for Really Simple Syndication. The file feeds information to update frequently used programs such as a blog, podcast, video, etc.
A software licensing and delivery model in which software is licensed on a subscription basis and is centrally hosted. It is sometimes referred to as “on-demand software”.
- Safe Mode
A diagnostic mode of a computer operating system (OS). Safe mode is intended to help fix most, if not all problems within an operating system.
A storage area network is a network which provides access to consolidated, block level data storage. SANs are primarily used to enhance storage devices, such as disk arrays, tape libraries, and optical jukeboxes, accessible to servers so that the devices appear to the operating system as locally attached devices.
Serial ATA (SATA, abbreviated from Serial AT Attachment) is a computer bus interface that connects host bus adapters to mass storage devices such as hard disk drives, optical drives, and solid-state drives.
- Screen Reader
A software application which, rather than presenting web content visually, converts text into ‘synthesized speech’ allowing user to alternatively listen to content.
- Scroll Bar
An interaction technique or widget in which continuous text, pictures, or any other content can be scrolled in a predetermined direction (up, down, left, or right) on a computer display, window, or viewport so that all of the content can be viewed, even if only a fraction of the content can be seen on a device’s screen at one time.
- Search Engine
A tool that searches documents by keyword and returns a list of possible matches; most often used in reference to programs such as Google that are used by your web browser to search the Internet for a particular topic.
- Search Engine Optimization (SEO)
The process of applying techniques to a website to improve visibility to search engines as well as marketability of the site using experienced web design and development, and relevant and correctly placed keyword phrases within the content.
- Section 508
A 1998 amendment that requires Federal agencies to make their electronic and information technology accessible to people with disabilities.
- Secure Server
An Internet server that encrypts confidential information supplied by visitors to web pages, thus protecting the confidentiality.
- Security Token
A small hardware device that the owner carries to authorize access to a network service.
- Self-Extracting File
A computer executable program which contains compressed data in an archive file combined with machine-executable program instructions to extract this information on a compatible operating system and without the necessity for a suitable extractor to be already installed on the target computer
- Serial Port
A serial communication interface through which information transfers in or out one bit at a time (in contrast to a parallel port).
A computer program or a device that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called “clients”. This architecture is called the client–server model, and a single overall computation is distributed across multiple processes or devices.
A type of proprietary software which is provided (initially) free of charge to users, who are allowed and encouraged to make and share copies of the program, which helps to distribute it.
A short message or line of information that people commonly assign to their outgoing email messages, telling the receiver of the message information about the sender.
Single In-line Memory Module is a type of memory module containing random-access memory used in computers from the early 1980s to the late 1990s.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is an Internet standard for electronic mail (email) transmission.
- Social Web Networking
Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram are all social web media used to connect people and ideas to one another.
The part of a computer system that consists of encoded information or computer instructions, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built.
Email spam, also known as junk email or unsolicited bulk email (UBE), is a subset of spam that involves nearly identical messages sent to numerous recipients by email. Definitions of spam usually include the aspects that email is unsolicited and sent in bulk. Spammers collect email addresses from chatrooms, websites, customer lists, newsgroups, and viruses which harvest users’ address books, and are sold to other spammers. They also use a practice known as “email appending” or “epending” in which they use known information about their target (such as a postal address) to search for the target’s email address. Also see “Anti-Spam”.
Spyware is any technology that aids in gathering information about a person or organization without their knowledge.
Service Set Identifier is a case sensitive, 32 alphanumeric character unique identifier attached to the header of packets sent over a wireless local-area network (WLAN) that acts as a password when a mobile device tries to connect to the basic service set (BSS) — a component of the IEEE 802.11 WLAN architecture.
- Static Website
A website that remains the same and is not easily editable.
- Streaming (Streaming Media)
Streaming media results in video or audio content sent in compressed form over the Internet and played immediately, rather than being saved to the hard drive.
A directory that is located within another directory.
Super Video Graphics Array (Super VGA or SVGA) is a high-resolution standard used to channel video data to a compatible visual output device – usually a computer monitor. This is actually a broad umbrella term for other computer display standards.
- T-1 Carrier
A dedicated phone connection supporting data rates of 1.544Mbits per second. A T-1 line actually consists of 24 individual channels, each of which supports 64Kbits per second. Each 64Kbit/second channel can be configured to carry voice or data traffic.
- T-3 Carrier
A dedicated phone connection supporting data rates of about 43 Mbps. A T-3 line actually consists of 672 individual channels, each of which supports 64 Kbps.
A data structure used to organize information, just as it is on paper. There are many different types of computer-related tables, which work in a number of different ways.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol is the basic communication language or protocol of the Internet. It can also be used as a communications protocol in a private network (either an intranet or an extranet).
The technology associated with the electronic transmission of voice, fax, or other information between distant parties using systems historically associated with the telephone, a handheld device containing both a speaker or transmitter and a receiver.
An application layer protocol used on the Internet or local area networks to provide a bidirectional interactive text-oriented communication facility using a virtual terminal connection.
- Terminal Emulation
A program that emulates a video terminal within some other display architecture. Though typically synonymous with a shell or text terminal, the term terminal covers all remote terminals, including graphical interfaces.
A computer file format for storing raster graphics images, popular among graphic artists, the publishing industry, and photographers.
In a token ring network, the presence of a token (which is simply a particular bit setting) in a continually circulating transmission stream allows a device to change the bit setting (thus taking the token) and put a message in its place.
- Tool Bar
In the graphical user interface (GUI) for a computer, a toolbar is a horizontal row or vertical column of selectable image “buttons” that give the user a constantly visible reminder of and an easy way to select certain desktop or other application functions.
- Traffic Analytics
A program set up within a website’s code that tracks the traffic to the website and reports the information for analysis.
- Traffic Rank
A statistical determination of how a website ranks by tracking users’ decisions in search queries.
- Trojan Horse
Any malicious computer program which is used to hack into a computer by misleading users of its true intent. The term is derived from the Ancient Greek story of the wooden horse that was used to help Greek troops invade the city of Troy by stealth.
An outline font standard developed by Apple and Microsoft in the late 1980s as a competitor to Adobe’s Type 1 fonts used in PostScript. It has become the most common format for fonts on both the Mac OS and Microsoft Windows operating systems.
- Twisted Pair Cable
A type of wiring in which two conductors of a single circuit are twisted together for the purposes of canceling out electromagnetic interference (EMI) from external sources, used in telephones.
A social service that provides a means to communicate and stay connected through the exchange of quick and frequent messages. User updates are known as ‘tweets’.
- Two-Factor Authentication
A method of confirming a user’s claimed identity by utilizing a combination of two different components. These components may be something that the user knows, something that the user possesses or something that is inseparable from the user.
A family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, developed in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.
To send data to a remote system such as a server or another client so that the remote system can store a copy.
When spelled out means Uniform Resource Locator and is basically the web address (i.e., www.ashleycyberservices.com).
Short for Universal Serial Bus, an industry standard developed in the mid-1990s that defines the cables, connectors and communications protocols used in a bus for connection, communication, and power supply between computers and electronic devices.
- USB Port
A type of serial port for connecting peripheral devices in a system.
A unique sequence of characters used to identify a user and allow access to a computer system, computer network, or online account.
A small program that provides an addition to the capabilities provided by the operating system.
A popular utility for encoding and decoding files exchanged between users or systems in a network. It originated for use between users of UNIX systems.
The process of ensuring all web pages are in compliance with the internet standards set by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).
Virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI) is the practice of hosting a desktop operating system within a virtual machine (VM) running on a centralized server. VDI is a variation on the client/server computing model, sometimes referred to as server-based computing.
- Virtual Classroom
An online learning environment. The environment can be web-based and accessed through a portal or software-based and require a downloadable executable file.
- Virtual Hosting
A method for hosting multiple domain names (with separate handling of each name) on a single server (or pool of servers). This allows one server to share its resources, such as memory and processor cycles, without requiring all services provided to use the same host name.
- Virtual Machine
An emulation of a particular computer system. Virtual machines operate based on the computer architecture and functions of a real or hypothetical computer, and their implementations may involve specialized hardware, software, or a combination of both.
- Virtual Memory
A memory management technique that is implemented using both hardware and software. It maps memory addresses used by a program, called virtual addresses, into physical addresses in computer memory.
- Virtual Reality
A computer technology that replicates an environment, real or imagined, and simulates a user’s physical presence and environment to allow for user interaction.
The act of creating a virtual (rather than actual) version of something, including virtual computer hardware platforms, operating systems, storage devices, and computer network resources.
A malware that, when executed, replicates by reproducing itself or infecting other programs by modifying them.
Voice over IP is a methodology and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet.
A virtual private network (VPN) extends a private network across a public network or internet. It enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network.
A video terminal, introduced in August 1978 by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC). It was one of the first terminals to support ANSI escape codes for cursor control and other tasks, and added a number of extended codes for special features like controlling the LED lamps on the keyboard.
A client–server text searching system that uses the ANSI Standard Z39.50 Information Retrieval Service Definition and Protocol Specifications for Library Applications” (Z39.50:1988) to search index databases on remote computers.
A telecommunications network or computer network that extends over a large geographical distance.
A technical standard for accessing information over a mobile wireless network. A WAP browser is a web browser for mobile devices such as mobile phones that uses the protocol.
- Web Browser
A software program that lets you explore the World Wide Web to find just about anything. Popular examples are Microsoft’s Internet Explorer and Mozilla Firefox.
- Web Directory
There are both paid and unpaid directories that links to a website and then catalogues that link.
- Website Description
The description is placed in the metatags for use in search engine indexing as part of the information returned on an internet search.
- Website Keywords and Phrases
Great care should be given to include relevant keywords and keyword phrases in the content as a way to attract the search engines. Keywords are also listed in the metatags for use in search engine indexing.
- Website Title
The title is placed in the metatags to be displayed at the top of a webpage and also to be used as part of the information returned on an internet search.
A security algorithm for IEEE 802.11 wireless networks. Introduced as part of the original 802.11 standard ratified in 1997, its intention was to provide data confidentiality comparable to that of a traditional wired network.
- White Hat SEO
Accepted SEO steps that are beneficial to achieving higher website rankings, increasing traffic and in the end result in lower cost marketing for businesses.
A technology that allows electronic devices to connect to a wireless LAN (WLAN) network, mainly using the 2.4 gigahertz (12 cm) UHF and 5 gigahertz (6 cm) SHF ISM radio bands.
A web application within a web page, blog or social profile that provides visitors to a website with user specific information or functions.
- Wild Card
A single character, such as an asterisk (*), that used to represent a number of characters or an empty string. It is often used in file searches so the full name need not be typed.
A graphical control element. It consists of a visual area containing some of the graphical user interface of the program it belongs to and is framed by a window decoration.
Another way of referring to Microsoft Windows.
- Wireless (Networking)
Any type of computer network that uses wireless data connections for connecting network nodes.
A software wizard or setup assistant is a user interface type that presents a user with a sequence of dialog boxes that lead the user through a series of well-defined steps.
A wireless local area network is a wireless computer network that links two or more devices using a wireless distribution method (often spread-spectrum or OFDM radio) within a limited area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, or office building.
A special computer designed for technical or scientific applications. Intended primarily to be used by one person at a time, they are commonly connected to a local area network and run multi-user operating systems.
- World Wide Web
An information space where documents and other web resources are identified by URLs, interlinked by hypertext links, and can be accessed via the Internet.
- World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
An international group established to determine and agree upon basic internet standards applicable around the world, so all countries will be able to communicate on the internet regardless of the language used or stated purpose for being there.
A standalone malware computer program that replicates itself in order to spread to other computers.
Wi-Fi Protected Access is a security protocol and security certification program developed by the Wi-Fi Alliance to secure wireless computer networks.
An abbreviation for World Wide Web.
“What You See Is What You Get”, A system in which content (text and graphics) onscreen during editing appears in a form closely corresponding to its appearance when printed or displayed as a finished product,
Extensible Hypertext Markup Language is part of the family of XML markup languages. It mirrors or extends versions of the widely used Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), the language in which Web pages are formulated.
Extensible Markup Language is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable.
An undisclosed computer-software vulnerability that hackers can exploit to adversely affect computer programs, data, additional computers or a network. It is known as a “zero-day” because once the flaw becomes known, the software’s author has zero days in which to plan and advise any mitigation against its exploitation.
An archive file format that supports lossless data compression. A .ZIP file may contain one or more files or directories that may have been compressed.
- Zip Drive
A medium-to-high-capacity (at the time of its release) removable floppy disk storage system that was introduced by Iomega in late 1994.
The ability to zoom in and out a document or image at page level. It is usually found in applications related to document layout and publishing, e.g. word processing and spreadsheet programs.